Effect of life style abnormality in adolescent age group
A complete urinalysis includes physical, chemical and microscopic examinations. Midstream clean catch collection is acceptable in most situations, but the specimen should be examined within two hours of collection. Cloudy urine often is a result of precipitated phosphate crystals in alkaline urine, but pyuria also can be the cause. A strong odour may be the result of a concentrated specimen rather than a urinary tract infection. Dipstick urinalysis is convenient, but false-positive and false-negative results can occur. Specific gravity provides a reliable assessment of the patient’s hydration status. Glomerular, renal and urologic causes of microhaematuria often can be differentiated by other elements of the urinalysis. Although transient proteinuria typically is a benign condition, persistent proteinuria requires further work-up.
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